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A Refresher Course on Disaster Recovery with AWS

IT infrastructure is the hardware, network, services and software required for enterprise IT. It is the foundation that enables organizations to deliver IT services to their users. Disaster recovery (DR) is preparing for and recovering from natural and people-related disasters that impact IT infrastructure for critical business functions. Natural disasters include earthquakes, fires, etc. People-related disasters include human error, terrorism, etc. Business continuity differs from DR as it involves keeping all aspects of the organization functioning, not just IT infrastructure.

When planning for DR, companies must establish a recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO) for each critical IT service. RTO is the acceptable amount of time in which an IT service must be restored. RPO is the acceptable amount of data loss measured in time. Companies establish both RTOs and RPOs to mitigate financial and other types of loss to the business. Companies then design and implement DR plans to effectively and efficiently recover the IT infrastructure necessary to run critical business functions.

For companies with corporate datacenters, the traditional approach to DR involves duplicating IT infrastructure at a secondary location to ensure available capacity in a disaster. The key downside is IT infrastructure must be bought, installed and maintained in advance to address anticipated capacity requirements. This often causes IT infrastructure in the secondary location to be over-procured and under-utilized. In contrast, Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides companies with access to enterprise-grade IT infrastructure that can be scaled up or down for DR as needed.

The four most common DR architectures on AWS are:

  • Backup and Restore ($) – Companies can use their current backup software to replicate data into AWS. Companies use Amazon S3 for short-term archiving and Amazon Glacier for long-term archiving. In the event of a      disaster, data can be made available on AWS infrastructure or restored from the cloud back onto an on-premise server.
  • Pilot Light ($$) – While backup and restore are focused on data, pilot light includes applications. Companies only provision core infrastructure needed for critical applications. When disaster strikes, Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) and other automation services are used to quickly provision the remaining environment for production.
  • Warm Standby ($$$) – Taking the Pilot Light model one step further, warm standby creates an active/passive cluster. The minimum amount of capacity is provisioned in AWS. When needed, the environment rapidly scales up to meet full production demands. Companies receive (near) 100% uptime and (near) no downtime.
  • Hot Standby ($$$$) – Hot standby is an active/active cluster with both cloud and on-premise components to it. Using weighted DNS load-balancing, IT determines how much application traffic to process in-house and on AWS.      If a disaster or spike in load occurs, more or all of it can be routed to AWS with auto-scaling.

In a non-disaster environment, warm standby DR is not scaled for full production, but is fully functional. To help adsorb/justify cost, companies can use the DR site for non-production work, such as quality assurance, ing, etc. For hot standby DR, cost is determined by how much production traffic is handled by AWS in normal operation. In the recovery phase, companies only pay for what they use in addition and for the duration the DR site is at full scale. In hot standby, companies can further reduce the costs of their “always on” AWS servers with Reserved Instances (RIs).

Smart companies know disaster is not a matter of if, but when. According to a study done by the University of Oregon, every dollar spent on hazard mitigation, including DR, saves companies four dollars in recovery and response costs. In addition to cost savings, smart companies also view DR as critical to their survival. For example, 51% of companies that experienced a major data loss closed within two years (Source: Gartner), and 44% of companies that experienced a major fire never re-opened (Source: EBM). Again, disaster is not a ready of if, but when. Be ready.

-Josh Lowry, General Manager – West

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Disaster Recovery – Don’t wait until it’s too late!

October 28th marked the one year anniversary of Hurricane Sandy, the epic storm that ravaged the Northeastern part of the United States. Living in NJ where the hurricane made landfall and having family that lives across much of the state we personally lived through the hurricane and its aftermath. It’s hard to believe that it’s been a year already. It’s an experience we’ll never forget, and we have made plans to ensure that we’re prepared in case anything like that happens again. Business mirrors Life in many cases, and when I speak with customers across the country the topic of disaster recovery comes up often. The conversations typically have the following predictable patterns:

  • I’ve just inherited the technology and systems of company X (we’ll call it company X to protect the innocent), and we have absolutely no backup or disaster recovery strategy at all. Can you help me?
  • We had a disaster recovery strategy, but we haven’t really looked at it in a very long time, I’ve heard Cloud Computing can help me. Is that true?
  • We have a disaster recovery approach we’re thinking about. Can you review it and validate that we’re leveraging best practices?
  • I’m spending a fortune on disaster recovery gear that just sits idle 95% of the time. There has to be a better way.

The list is endless with permutations, and yes there is a better way. Disaster recovery as a workload is a very common one for a Cloud Computing solution, and there’s a number of ways you can approach it. As with anything there are tradeoffs of cost vs. functionality and typically depends on the business requirements. For example a full active/active environment where you need complete redundancy and sub second failover can be costly but potentially necessary depending on your business requirements. In the Financial Services industry for example, having revenue generating systems down for even a few seconds can cost a company millions of dollars.

We have helped companies of all sizes think about, design and implement disaster recovery strategies. From Pilot Lights, where there’s just the glimmer of an environment, to warm standby’s to fully redundant systems. The first step is to plan for the future and not wait until it’s too late.

-Mike Triolo, General Manager East

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